Tubers are a growing source of food energy. Very good for pig nutrition and feeding. Generally, the tubers contain high energy, but the protein content is low. Nevertheless, the productivity of protein and tuber energy per hectare compared with the higher n-butteries. Except for the protein productivity of the cassavas.
Here are the tubers as Pig Feed
It is the most important agricultural crop in the tropics. Indonesia, Nigeria, Zaire, Thailand, and India are important cassava producing countries. In Indonesia cassava is the staple food in the third order after rice and corn. The content of cassava protein is lower than maize. When cassava is used as a source of energy in the ration, it must be balanced with a higher protein source. Calcium and phosphorus levels are adequate, but because of the high oxalic acid content (0.1-0.31%), that will affect the absorption of Ca and Zn.
A limiting factor in the use of cassava is the cyanide acid (HCN) toxin present in the form of cyanogenic glycosides. Two kinds of cyanogenic glycosides in cassava are lanamarine (approximately 95% of the cyanogenic glycoside form) and lotaustralin forms. In the process of detoxification of cyanide acid in the livestock, the body needs sulfur that can from the amino acid increase. Sulfur for this detoxification may also be derived from inorganic sulfur. Use of cassava in rations based on some researchers for poultry 5-10%, 40-70% pigs, and 40-90% ruminants.
Fresh cassava production 10-40 ton / ha / year. From cassava plants, 10-40% consists of leaves. As much as 75% of leaf protein is pure and has a fairly high nutritional value. Amino acids of cassava leaves are almost the same as soybean meal although the amount is different. Cassava leaves are essential amino acid deficiency containing sulfur that is methionine and cystine. Another disadvantage is the presence of HCN toxins and high crude fiber content. HCN content in young leaves ranged from 427-542 mg/kg. While in the old leaves low content more ranging from 343 to 379 mg/kg.
Varieties are numerous, causing differences in taste, size, shape, color and nutritional value. Production of sweet potatoes between 2.5 – 15 tons of fresh / ha / year. Sweet potatoes are a source of energy. For yellow yams contain provitamin A and sufficient carotenoids. The sweet potato amino acids are luecine. Like most tubers that have a low protein content, the provision of sweet potatoes needs to be balanced with the provision of high protein content. When using more than 90% of a substitute for maize, frequent intestinal injuries can be followed by death. In ruminansia rations generally, use corn substitutes as much as 50%.
Factory Waste Tapioca and Sugar
The cassava conversion rate becomes the waste between 60-65%. As energy, this waste is lower than corn and cassava but higher than bran. Although the composition of cassava flour is higher than cassava but the level of HCN of cassava flour is higher than this waste. The use of this waste in poultry rations is at most 5% of the rations, for pigs 25-30% and for ruminants 40% of the rations.